Horatio Hale’s “Ethnographic Map of Oregon”
This map was produced as a part of the United States Exploring Expedition in 1841, and it’s regarded as being an accurate picture of languages in the region. Henry Zenk and Tony Johnson wrote about the Hale map in an article published in the journal of the Oregon Historical Society (OHQ Winter 2010, p 445): “Only the Takelma language of southern Oregon is conspicuously absent from his 1841 sketch –map” They also provide an updated nomenclature to the languages relevant to the focus of their article: “Tsinuk (Lower Chinook), Walawala (Sahaptin), Watlala (Upper Chinook), Kalapuya (a family of three languages), Umpkwa (Umpqua), Saste (Shasta), Molele (Molala), and Lutuami (Klamath).” Note the connection between geography and languages. The Cascade Mountains, the Columbia River, and The Dalles all contribute to the pattern of languages spoken in the region.
Detail of the Lower Columbia
Used with permission University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections. Negative number UW29773z