top of page

Part 2 - Kanaka Town and the Overland Fur Trade

Fort Vancouver's Kanaka TownChinook, Cree, Voyageurs, King George’s Men, Bostons, and Owhyhees

Hawaiians at Fort Vancouver

Hawaiian Language and Syllabic Structure

Exercise 2.1—Linguistics Problem Set: Reduplication in Hawaiian

Language Contact and Hawaiian Creole English

Exercise 2.2—Linguistics Problem Set: Negation in Pidgin (Hawaiian Creole English)


Horatio Hale and the US Exploring Expedition

The Development of Chinuk Wawa

Chinuk Wawa as a Lingua Franca

Activity 3.1—Interview with Tony Johnson

Activity 3.2—Use of Chinuk Wawa on Pacific Northwest fruit crates (c. 1930s)

Exercise 3.1—Reduplication in Chinuk Wawa

Exercise 3.2—Negation and Agreement in English and Chinuk Wawa

In the 1850s, American visitors to this area of Fort Vancouver referred to the Village as “Kanaka Town.” At the time, Hawaiians were known as Kanakas, meaning “human being,” and this name for the community is evidence of their significant presence at Fort Vancouver. “Fort Vancouver and the Village from the West,” July 1851. Drawn by George Gibbs. Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, Neg. No. 2854-F-14.


Was Fort Vancouver a hothouse or a harmonious multicultural village created intentionally by the Hudson’s Bay Company?

What is the impact on language of increased trade and interactions between civilizations and cultures?

Chinook group inside a cedar plank lodge, Oregon. From an engraving by A.T. Agate in the report of the Wilkes Expedition – 1841.University of Washington, Special Collections, Negative number NA 3994

bottom of page