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Part One—Linguistic Diversity in the Pacific Northwest


The Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages

Gould, Marian K. (1917) Folk-tales of Salishan and Sahaptin tribes, IV. Sanpoil Tales. 14. “The Origin of the Different Languages.” Boas,Franz Ed. The American Folk-Lore Society, Lancaster (PA).

Hale, Horatio. (1846) Ethnographic map of Oregon (p. 197), from the report of the United States Exploring Expedition, Vol. VI, Ethnography and Philology. Philadelphia.

Zenk, Henry & Johnson, Tony. (2010) “A Northwest Language of Contact, Diplomacy, and Identity.” Oregon Historical Quarterly. Vol. 3, No. 4. Oregon Historical Society.

Distribution of North American Language Families North of Mexico. Wikipedia Commons.

From Wikipedia…Map redrawn and modified primary based on two maps by cartographer Roberta Bloom appearing in Mithun (1999: xviii-xxi). Incidentally, these maps are very derivative of the Driver map of the 1950s-60s (which means that, although published in 1999, it is not as up-to-date as one might think). The other main source used is the up-to-date and very well-done map found in Goddard (1996), which was revised as Goddard (1999). Essentially, Bloom’s map was used for the projection and general outline of language borders while Goddard’s maps were used to adjust Bloom’s borders to reflect the more recent research.

Driver, Harold E. (1969). Indians of North America (2nd rev. ed.). Chicago: Chicago University Press. (Original work 1961).

Goddard, Ives. (1996). Native languages and language families of North America [Map]. In I. Goddard (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Languages (Vol. 17). (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution.

Goddard, Ives. (1999). Native languages and language families of North America (rev. and enlarged ed. with additions and corrections). [Map]. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press (Smithsonian Institute). (Updated version of the map in Goddard 1996).

Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moziño, José Mariano. (1991) Noticias de Nutka: an account of Nootka Sound in 1792. Translated by Iris Wilson Engstrad. University of Washington Press. Reprint of the 1970 edition with new preface and forward.

Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest, University of Washington.

The Center’s web site is an excellent source for information about the Pacific Northwest. The two supplementary readings about European-Native contact can be found there, as well as many other fantastic primary and secondary sources. In particular, check out the Classroom Materials section for a Curriculum Packet about European-Native contact and look at Reading the Region for an essay about literature by and about Native Americans. See also the Pacific Northwest History part of the Classroom Materials section for lecture notes on the fur trade.

Cable, Seth. (2008) “An Introduction to the Peoples and Languages of the Pacific Northwest.”

Baring-Gould, Sabine. (1881) Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets and other Old Testament Characters from Various Sources. Available as a Google e-book.

Reconstructing Native American Population History. 

Nature. 488, pp. 370–374 (16 August 2012)

Part Two—Kanaka Town and the Overland Fur Trade


          Hawaiians at Fort Vancouver

Fort Vancouver and the Village from the West, July 1851. [Image] Drawn by George Gibbs. Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, Neg. No. 2854-F-14.

Bagemihl, Bruce. (1991) "Syllable Structure in Bella Coola." Linguistic Inquiry
Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 589-646

Brown, Jennifer S.H. (1980). Strangers in Blood: Fur Trade Company Families in Indian Country. Vancouver: UBC Press

The Company Village (National Park Service Pamphlet).

The Village (National Park Service Pamphlet) <>

Crossing East: Hawaiians in the Pacific Northwest. Dmae Roberts & Sara Caswell Kolbet, producers. National Public Radio. Original air date: October 18, 2005.


Crossing East: Proud to Speak Pidgin, Brah. Dmae Roberts, producer. National Public Radio. Original air date: July 27, 2005.


Kennedy, Robert. (2011) “Vowel Length in Hawaiian Reduplication,” draft manuscript, University of California Santa Barbara CA. Accessed August 29, 2011.


Higgins, Christina. “Talking Story about Pidgin: Exploring the creole language of Hawai‘i.” University of Hawai‘i. Accessed September 9, 2011. <>

Barman, Jean and Bruce Watson. (2006) Leaving Paradise: Indigenous Hawaiians in the Pacific Northwest, 1787-1898. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Sakoda, Kent and Jeff Siegel. (2003) Pidgin Grammar: An introduction to the Creole language of Hawai‘i. Honolulu: Bess Press.


Agate, A.T.  (1846) Chinook group inside a cedar plank lodge, Oregon. [Image] From an engraving in the report of the Wilkes Expedition. Philadelphia.

American Indians of the Pacific Northwest. “Missionaries in the Pacific Northwest.” <>

Hale, Horatio. (1846) The Report of the United States Exploring Expedition, Vol. VI, Ethnography and Philology. Philadelphia.

Harmon, Alexandra. (1998) Indians in the Making: Ethnic Relations and Indian Identities around Puget Sound. University of California Press.

Interview with Tony Johnson. From the Lewis and Clark National Bicentennial Exhibition. Lesson Four: New Languages. 2002. Length—5:48. <>

Jacobs, Melville. “Notes on the Structure of Chinook Jargon.” Language. Vol. 8, No. 1. March, 1932: pp. 27–50.

Kalispel, Skitswish, Salish & Colville men pose with Father De Smet after the journay to Vancouver in 1859. University of Washington, Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture. Negative No. L87-410.4.

L.N. St. Onge. (1892) “Bible History Translated in Chinook by the Rev. L.N. Saint Onge Missionary Among the Yakamas and Other Indian Tribes of the Territories of Washington, Idaho, Montana, and of Oregon.” Dosier 650/326 in Archives Séminaire St-Hyacinthe. St-Hyacinthe, Quebec.

Lang, George. (2008) Making Wawa: The Genesis of Chinook Jargon. UBC Press, Vancouver.

Mithun, Marianne. (1999) The languages of Native North America. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Proser, Bill. “Kamloops Wawa.” Language Log. Posted March 29, 2004. <>

Thomason, Sarah G. “Chinook Jargon in Areal and Historical Context.” Language. Vol. 59, No. 4, December 1983: 820–70.

Thrush, Coll. (2007) Native Seattle: Histories from the Crossing-Over Place. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

“The Wawa Shorthand. See how easy.” [Image] Children of Fort Langley. <>

Zenk, Henry B. & Johnson, Tony. (2010)  “A Northwest Language of Contact, Diplomacy, and Identity.” Oregon Historical Quarterly. Vol. 3, No. 4. Oregon Historical Society, 2010.

Zenk, Henry B. & Johnson, Tony. (2013) “Chinuk Wawa and Its Roots in Chinookan.” Chinookan Peoples of the Lower Columbia. ed. Robert Boyd, Kenneth Ames, and Tony Johnson. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Zenk, Henry B. (1984) “Some Evidence of Elaboration in Chinook Jargon.” Vol. 4, No. 2. Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle.

Part 3—The Power of Treaties and Huchoosedah


“Children in Front of Girls Dormitory Building, Tulalip Indian Boarding School, 1912” [Image] MOHAI. Negative No. MOHAI 88-11-13. <>

Atkins, J.D.C. (1887) Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Bates, Dawn. 1986. An analysis of Lushootseed diminutive reduplication. In Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 1–12. Berkeley, Calif.: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Bowden, Mark. Since Time Immemorial Curriculm lessons. Yelm Middle School. <>

CBC News.  A history of residential schools in Canada. Posted: May 16, 2008 11:22 a.m. ET. Last Updated: Mar 21, 2016 1:37 p.m. ET<://>. 

Hale, Ken. “On endangered languages and the safeguarding of diversity,” Language 68:1, 1992, p.1

Hess, T. M., & Hilbert, V. (1976). Lushootseed: An introduction, Books 1 and 2. University of Washington: American Indian Studies.

Hess, Thom and Vi Hilbert, Taqwšəblu. no date. Lushootseed: The language of the Skagit, Nisqually, and other tribes of Puget Sound, An Introduction: Book Two. Seattle, WA: Daybreak Star Press.

Hilbert, Vi. Huchoosedah: Traditions of the heart. Native American Public Telecommunications, Inc.; Corporation for Public Broadcasting.; KCTS (Television station : Seattle, Wash.); BBC Wales.; Lucerne Media.; Vision Maker Video (Firm)

Kluger, Richard. (2011) The Bitter Waters of Medicine Creek: A Tragic Clash Between White and Native America. Alfred E. Knopf, New York.

 Reyhner, J. (1992). Policies toward American Indian languages: A historical sketch. In Crawford, J. (Ed.), Language Loyalties: A Source Book on the Official English Controversy (pp. 41-47). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Thrush, Coll-Peter. “The Lushootseed Peoples of Puget Sound Country.” University of Washington. <>

Tulalip Lushootsed. <>

General Resources


A catalogue of the world's languages.

Placenames in Western Canada and the Pacific Northwest with origins in Chinuk Wawa.


Voices of North Carolina

Jeff Reaser and Walt Wolfram’s curriculum of dialect awareness is a great resource. A teacher and student version is available for downloading on this web site.


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